When it comes to multimedia sources, listed below are merely the basic formats. If other information pertinent to your source (either for identification or directly to your own research) is not shown but needs to be included, it should be.

Listed below are both the foot/endnote and the bibliography entry, in that order. Foot/endnotes receive a first line (one tab or .5" indent, which should be automatic in Word), and the bibliography receives a hanging indent. Be sure you are looking at the correct one.

  • An Episode of a Television or Radio Program
    The same format is used for DVDs or streaming services like Netflix or Amazon Instant Video. Simply change the medium to DVD or Netflix Streaming Video File.

Writers (if listed), “Episode Title,” Series Title, season #, episode #, directed by , aired date (Location: Production Company, copyright date), Medium.

Todd Harthan, “100 Clues,” Psych, season 7, episode 100, directed by Matt Shakman, aired March 27, 2013 (New York: USA Network, 2013), Television.

Harthan, Todd. “100 Clues.” Psych. Season 7. Episode 100. Directed by Matt Shakman. Aired March 27, 2013. New York: USA Network, 2013. Television.

  • A Film or Video Recording (DVD)
    Indexed scenes are treated like chapters in a book and should be listed in quotation marks.

Ironman 3, directed by Shane Black (Burbank, CA: Warner Bros., 2013). Film.

Ironman 3. Directed by Shane Black. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros., 2013. Film.

  • A Song on a CD or MP3
    Composer, writer, performer, or person responsible for content, Title punctuated appropriately (“song,” album, “song in a classical piece,” classical piece), Recoding Company or Publisher, identifying number of recording (if any), copyright date or date of performance, Medium.

Fun, “Some Nights,” Fueled by Ramen, 2012, compact disc.

Fun. “Some Nights.” Fueled by Ramen. 2012, compact disc.

  • A Recorded Speech, Lecture, or Reading
    If it is not obvious from the title that it is a speech, lecture, or reading, include that in parentheses after the title.

Franklin D. Roosevelt, “First Inaugural Speech,” March 4, 1933, Adobe Flash Audio, 1:11, BBC News Online,

Roosevelt, Franklin D. “First Inaugural Speech.” March 4, 1993. Adobe Flash Audio, 1:11. BBC News Online.

  • A Performance Retrieved Online

William Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing, directed by Josie Rourke, performed September 2011 (London: Digital Theatre, 2011). Digital Theatre Video File.

Shakespeare, William. Much Ado About Nothing. Directed by Josie Rourke. Performed September 2011. London: Digital Theatre, 2011. Digital Theatre Video File.

  • A Cartoon or Comic Strip
    If there is a title to the cartoon, include it after the artist’s name.

Cartoon by Roz Chast, New Yorker (April 7, 1997): 72.

  • A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph (Visual Art)
    Pictures or photos are cited only in the caption of the image, usually in parenthesis if there is already a note in the caption. You are not citing the actual piece of artwork but the location you retrieved it from. If you retrieved it from a website, you will cite that, if a photocopy from a book, cite the book.

Fig. 1. “Mona Lisa” painting by Leonardo da Vinci. (Photo courtesy of “Proof 'original' Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci,” The Telegraph online, last modified February 14, 2013,

  • Document in a Microform Collection
    Documents in a microform collection are treated first as the original publication type, with the microform information in place of or following the publication information.

William Whately, "A bride-blush, or a wedding sermon," Early English Books 1475-1640 (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 1956– ), P&R 25296.

Whately, William. "A bride-blush, or a wedding sermon." Early English Books 1475-1640. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 1956– . P&R 25296.


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