APA Style provides a foundation for effective scholarly communication because it helps writers present their ideas in a clear, precise, and inclusive manner.
When does APA style work best? Authors plan for ethical compliance and report critical details of their research protocol to allow readers to evaluate findings and other researchers to potentially replicate the studies. Tables and figures present data in an engaging, consistent manner.
This section provides some general hints to using APA citations and the basic format of some simple, commonly used materials such as a book, an article found through an online database like ProQuest or Academic Search Complete, and a general website. For a more detailed reference guide, please see the other sections:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Lovecraft, H. P. (1973). Supernatural horror in literature. New York, NY: Dover Publications.
Two to Seven Authors
Reese, J. B., Urry, L. A., Cain, M. L., Wasserman, S. A., Minorsky, P. V., & Jackson, R. B. (2008) Campbell Biology (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Eight or More Authors
When there are eight or more authors, list the first six authors, followed by an ellipsis, and then the final author. All others are omitted.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., . . . Author, J. J. (Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Editor as Author
For a single editor use (Ed.).
Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.). (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Article or Chapter in a Book/Anthology
Davis, K. E., Kirkpatrick, L. A., Levy, M. B., & O’Hearn, R. E. (1994). Stalking the elusive love styles: Attachment styles, love styles, and relationship development. In R. Erber & R. Gilmour (Eds.), Theoretical frameworks for personal relationships (179-210). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Later Edition of a Book
Ramage, J. D., Bean, J. C., & Johnson, J. (2010). Writing arguments: A rhetoric with readings (8th ed.). New York, NY: Longman.
Electronic Version of a Print Book
Reese, J. B., Urry, L. A., Cain, M. L., Wasserman, S. A., Minorsky, P. V., & Jackson, R. B. (2008) Campbell Biology (9th ed.)
American Psychological Association. (2012).
Electronic Version of Republished Book
Freud, S. (1953). Psychopathology of everyday life. In A. A. Brill (Ed, & Trans.),
Book, "Jr." in Name
Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987).
Author Same as Publisher
American Psychological Association. (2010).
Book, No Author or Editor
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2004).
Book, Revised Edition
Levitt, S. D., & Dubner, S. J. (2006) Freakonomics: A rouge economists explores the hidden side of everything (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Several Volumes in a Multivolume Edited Work
Boydston, J. A. (Ed.). (1980–1984). John Dewey: The Later Works (Vols. 5–7). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Encyclopedia or Dictionary
Alderton, D. (2008). Encyclopedia of aquarium and pond fish. London, England: Dorling Kindersley.
Entry in an Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary
Zieve, D., Slon, S., & Wang, N. (Eds.). (2013). General anesthesia. A. D. A. M. medical encyclopedia: Medline plus.
Entry in an Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary, No Author or Editor
Immaculate. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.).
Non-English Book, Title Translated into English
Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1951). La genèse de l'idée de hasard chez l'enfant [The origin of the idea of chance in the child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
English Translation of a Book
Tolstoy, L. (1994). War and peace. (C. Gernett, Trans.). New York, NY: Random House. (Original work published in 1869).
Brochure, Corporate Author
If the publisher is the same as the author, you can put Author in place of the publisher information.
Full Name of Corporate Author. (Year). Title of brochure [Brochure]. Location: Publisher.
Chapter in a Volume in a Series, Series and Volume Editors
Aristotle. (2004). Book I. In P Negri (Series Ed.), & J. Bak (Volume Ed.). The Works of Aristotle: Rhetoric. (3rd ed., W. R. Roberts, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1924).
Electronic Version of Book Chapter in a Volume in a Series
If there are page numbers of the section, include them as well in the parentheses as pp. ##–##.
Aristotle. (2004). Book I. In P Negri (Series Ed.), & J. Bak (Volume Ed.). The Works of Aristotle: Rhetoric. (3rd ed., W. R. Roberts, Trans.).
Non-English Reference Book, Title Translated into English
Author, A. A. (Year) Untranslated title of book [Translated title of book]. Location: Publisher.
English Translation of an Article or Chapter in a Book, Reprinted from Another Source
You will, in essence, be citing two different books together.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article or chapter (A. B. Name, Trans.). In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Name of book (pp. #–#). Location: Publisher. (Reprinted from Original title, pp. #–#, by E. E. Editor, Ed., Year, Location: Publisher).
Article from a Database with a DOI:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), pp–pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxx
Ferraiolo, K. (2013, May). Is state gambling policy ‘morality policy’? Framing debates over state lotteries. Policy Studies Journal, 41(2), 217-242. doi:10.1111/psj.12015
Article from a Database without a DOI:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), pp–pp. Retrieved from https://completeURL.com
Aubry, T., Sylvester, J., & Ecker, J. (2010, May). Community psychology training in Canada in the new millennium. Canadian Psychology, 51(2), 89–95.
Journal Article by a Single Author
Chase, K. R. (2009). Constructing ethics through rhetoric: Isocrates and piety. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 95(3), 239–262.
Journal Article, Two to Seven Authors
McTyre, E., Scott, J., & Chinnaiyan, P. (2013). Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastasis. Surgical Neurology International, 4(5), S236–S244.
Journal Article, Eight or More Authors
The first six authors are given, followed by an ellipsis, and then the final author. All other authors are omitted.
Krawczyk, D. C., de la Plata, C. M., Schauer, G. F., Vas, A. K., Keebler, M., Tuthill, S., . . . Chapman, S. B. (2013). Evaluating the effectiveness of reasoning training in military and civilian chronic traumatic brain injury patients: study protocol. Trials, 14(1), 1–11.
Journal Article Retrieved Online with DOI
Ferraiolo, K. (2013, May). Is state gambling policy ‘morality policy’? Framing debates over state lotteries. Policy Studies Journal, 41(2), 217-242. doi:10.1111/psj.12015.
Journal Article Retrieved Online without DOI
Aubry, T., Sylvester, J., & Ecker, J. (2010, May). Community psychology training in Canada in the new millennium. Canadian Psychology, 51(2), 89–95.
Non-English Journal, Title Translated into English
The original title is given first, then followed by an English translation in brackets. No translation is needed for the journal title.
Lucie, A., Tomáš, G., & Milan, A. (2013, February). Podíl neurodormance na klinickém projevu mozkových poruch a moÅ¾nosti lécby aplikací zolpidemu [Contribution of brain dormancy to clinical signs of brain damage and the possibility of its treatment by zolpidem]. Anesteziologie a Intenzivni Medicina, 24(1), 26–32.
English Translation of a Journal Article
Kiran, C. R., Reshma, M. V., & Sundaresan, A. (2013). Separation of cis/trans fatty acid isomers on gas chromatography compared to the Ag-TLC method. Grasas y Aceites, 64(1), 95–102.
Journal Article, Advanced Online Publication
Elkins-Tanton, L. T. (2013). Planetary science: Evolutionary dichotomy for rocky planets. Nature. Advance online publication. doi:10.1038/497570a
In-Press Article Posted in a Preprint Archive
AlBakheet, A., Qari, A., Colak, D., Kaya, N., & Al-Sayed, M. (in press). A novel mutation in a large family causes a unique phenotype of Mucolipudosis IV. Gene.
Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113–1120.
Online Magazine Article
Rees, M. (2013, July) If this our final century? Astronomy. 30–43. Retireved from https://www.astronomy.com/
Newsletter Article, No Author
If the article has an author, it would be provided first as normal, followed by the date, and then the title.
The new health care lexicon. (1993, August/September). Copy Editor, 4, 1–2.
If the pages are discontinuous they are separated by commas: A1, A4. If the article appears on continuous pages it can be written as B5–B7. All pages it appears on must be listed.
If there is no author, move the title in front of the year, and all else remains the same.
Rampell, C. (2013, May 28). Home prices rise, putting country in buying mood. The New York Times, pp. A1.
Online Newspaper Article
Because articles URLs can be changed, give just the homepage of the newspaper website.
Schneider, H. (2013, May 29). Smithfield foods to be bought by Chinese firm Shuanghui International. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com
Special Issue of a Journal
In this case, and in the following, the editors of the issue are used as author.
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year). Title of issue [Special issue]. Journal Title, xx(x).
Special Section in a Journal
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year). Title of special section [Special section]. Journal Title, xx(x), xx–xx. doi:xx.xxxxxx
Editorial without Signature
Title of editorial [Editorial]. (Year). Journal Title, xx(x), xx–xx.
Online-Only Supplemental Material in a Periodical
Kruesi, L. (2013, July). The universe abounds with active central supermassive black holes [Supplemental material]. Astronomy. 24–29.
Most technical documents, whether it is a corporate or governmental agency producing it, follow the same format. Report No. is very generic and should be changed according to the database or service that produces it. For example, the National Technical Information Service number would be represented as (NTIS No. xxx), while the Educational Resources Information Center would be (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. xxx). Look at how the publisher lists the report and use their corresponding system. If no system can be found, you can use Report No.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher
- If the author and publisher are the same, Author may be used in the publication information. Be sure to list the organization’s entire name, including subcommittees, in the author section. (American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls)
- If the report is retrieved online, Retrieved from takes the place of Location: Publisher.
- Be sure to include the name of the publisher in the Retrieved from phrase: Retrieved from Agency name website: http://www.completeURL.com
Hamilton, B. E. (2012). Birth rates for U.S. teenagers reach historic lows for all ages and ethnic groups. (DHHS Publication No. PHS 2012-1209.0276-4733). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Corporate Author, Government Report
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Leath, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011, September). In brief: Your guide to anemia (NIH Publication No. 11-7629A). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/blood/anemia-inbrief_yg.pdf
Organization Acting as Author. (Year). Title of the document (Issue Brief No. xx). Location: Publisher.
Archival Documents and Collections
Archival documents are any kind of unpublished materials (manuscripts, letters, photographs) and limited or one-of-a-kind published materials (in-house corporate documents, clippings from historic newspapers) that are in private or public collections. SEMO has a number of these types of materials located in the Rare Book Room in Kent Library, which houses, among others, the Charles L. Harrison Collection and the Louis Daniel Brodsky-William Faulkner Collection.
Though there is a general format for citing these materials, it can be modified more or less as needed to ensure others are able to find the specific material in the collection. Include as much information as needed to search the collections. Use brackets to indicate any information not on the document itself and question marks if the information is uncertain due to poor/lost materials.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the material. [Description of the material]. Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.
If the document is in possession of the person writing the paper it is being cited in, the collection, repository, and location may be substituted with Copy in possession of author.
Letter from a Repository
If it is not a part of a collection, the name of the repository is moved in place of the collection name.
Smith, J. (1953, March 17). [Letter to Johnson J. Jones]. Made Up Collection (Series 2.1, Box 213, Folder 2314) Southeast Missouri State University, Rare Book Room, Cape Girardeau, MO.
Letter from a Private Collection
Author of Letter, A. A. (1856, March 13). [Letter to Full Name of Recipient]. Copy in possession of Full Name of Owner.
Collection of Letters from an Archive
When citing multiple letters in a collection, cite the entire collection on the reference page and the individual letters in-text.
Author of Collection, A. A. (1856–1864). Correspondence. Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.
(Author of Collection, A. A., Year-Range, Author to Recipient, Date of Letter)
(Smith, J., 1952–1954, Smith to J. Jones, March 17, 1953)
(Smith, J., 1952–1954, J. Jones to Smith, August 27, 1954)
Interview Recorded and Available in an Archive
Person being interviewed, A. A. (Date of interview). Interview by A. A. Name [Tape recording]. Name of Collection. Name of Repository, Location.
Smith, J. (1952, July 2). Interview by J. Jones [Tape recording]. Made Up Collection. Southeast Missouri State University, Rare Book Room, Cape Girardeau, MO.
Transcription of a Recorded Interview, No Recording Available
Person being interviewed, A. A. (Date of interview). Title of the transcript. Name of Collection. (Call number, Box number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.
Newspaper Article, Historical, in an Archive or Personal Collection
Title of article. (Year, Month Day). [Type of document] Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.
This is a title. (1935, December 26). [Clipping from an unidentified Cape Girardeau, MO newspaper]. Copy in possession of author.
[Photographs of Full Name of Person/s]. (ca. Year-Range) Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, etc.) Name of Repository, Location.
This section includes all types of sources found on the internet that are not covered in other sections. If you are looking for books or journals found online please see the Books and Periodicals sections.
Websites are much trickier than the other sources listed. When using a website, you must always judge the reliability of the source. Is it by a respectable group or organization or is it owned by a random person? Is the address one you can trust, like .edu or .gov, or an unknown free website like angelfire.com? Scholarly research isn’t simply about finding some information from whatever websites that are out there but finding reliable and verifiable information from trustworthy websites. Some key things to look for when judging a website’s authority are
- Does it have an author (or organization as author)
- How credible is the author
- Does it have a date of publication or update and is it recent
- Is the site sponsored by a legitimate organization or agency
- Is the sponsor organization generally considered to have bias
- Ultimately, use common sense and ask yourself, “Why should I trust this information?”
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the page. Retrieved from http://completeURL.com
It is important to remember to have accurate, stable URLs when citing, so the reader can find the same information if necessary. If the author uses a screen name instead of a real name, list the screen name. Also, since information can be easily changed, be sure to use the full date it was posted or updated.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013, May 3). Laws & regulations. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations
Message Posted to a Newsgroup, Online Forum, or Discussion Group
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.completeURL.com
Simons, D. J. (2000, July 14). New resources for visual cognition [Discussion group message]. Retrieved from http://groups.yahoo.com/group/visualcognition/message/31
Message Posted to an Electronic Mailing List
Since the URL doesn’t include the name of the list, it is provided before listing the URL.
Hammond, T. (2000, November 20). YAHC: Handle Parameters, DOI Genres, etc. [Electronic mailing list message] Retrieved from Ref-Links electronic mailing list, http://www.doi.org/mail-archive/ref-link/msg00088.html
de Vries, J. (2012, October 13). A procrastinating post about grading fragrances [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://tmoaem.blogspot.com/2012/10/a-procrastinatory-post-about-grading.html
Comment on a Blog Post
If the author is only known by a screen name, use that in place of the author name.
Scott, S. (2012, October 13). Re: A procrastinating post about grading fragrances [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://tmoaem.blogspot.com/2012/10/a-procrastinatory-post-about-grading.html
Moore, T. (2012, December 5). Understanding Wordpress Plugins. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=07rqFm0MRO0
This includes such media as CDs, motion pictures, and television show. While motion pictures and television series follow a similar format to a book citation, music and audio recording require much more information.
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture. [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.
Writer, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B.B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Meduim of recording: MP3, CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different form song copyright date)
Video, Not a Motion Picture
If the DVD is not commercially available at most stores, provide the link at the end to lead the reader to where they can find it.
American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2008). Working with immigrants [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/videos/
Feige, K. (Producer), & Black, S. (Director). (2013). Ironman 3 [Motion picture]. USA: Marvel Studios.
Lorre, C., & Prady, B. (Executive producers). (2007). The big bang theory [Television series]. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Studios.
Single Episode from a Television Series
Lorre, C., Holland, S., Hernandez, T. (Writers), & Cendrowski, M. (Director). (2012). The shiny trinket maneuver [Television series episode]. In Lorre, C., & Prady, B. (Executive producers), The big bang theory. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Studios.
Library of Congress. (Producer). (2013, May). Michael Feinstein on sound preservation [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/podcasts/qalcm/podcast_feinstein.html
Internal citations should include side/track number. (Fun, 2012, track 2)
Fun. (2012). Some Nights. On Some Nights [MP3 Album]. New York, NY: Fueled by Ramen.
Map Retrieved Online
U.S. Geological Survey (Cartographer). (1950). Salem quadrangle, Arkansas-Missouri 15 minute series [Topographical map]. Retrieved from http://ims.er.usgs.gov/gda_services/download?item_id=5429590
It is important to recognize that APA does not have a singular listing in their style manual on how to cite a video game. This citation is based off the method of citing software as listed below.
EA International. (2011) Dragon age II [Playstation 3]. Alberta, Canada: Bioware.
This includes any type of software, data set, or measurement instrument that helps in data analysis. Mass commercial software (like Microsoft Word or Excel) doesn’t need to be cited, but specialized or limited software should be. They are considered unauthored unless a specific person/group other than the producer is listed as holding the rights.
Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of program (Version number-if any) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.
If retrieved online:
Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of program (Version number-if any) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.completeURL.com
Miller, M. E. (1993). The Interactive Tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Westminster, CA: Psytek Services.
National Health Interview Survey--Current health topics: 1991--Longitudinal study of aging (Version 4) [Data file]. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Name of Apparatus [Apparatus and software]. (Year). Location: Name of producer.
For the most part reviews are straightforward. You want to give as much information as possible about the review, the material being reviewed, and where you found it. If it is in a periodical or online periodical, you treat it the same as a normal periodical, giving the journal, volume, issue, and pages, or the URL it can be found at. If there is no title, the bracketed material can take its place. If no author, the title (or bracketed material if no title also) is moved in front of the year.
Author of Review, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the book/motion picture/video game Title of material by A. A. Author] Title of journal/newspaper, xx, xx–xx.
If it is a motion picture, DVD, or video game which doesn’t have an single author to credit, use “produced by” instead of “by” and the company name.
Review of a Book
Wertheim, S. (2013). Hunter-Blatherer [Review of the book The world until yesterday: What can we learn from traditional societies? By J. Diamond]. Nation, 296(16), 35-37. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=86726805&site=ehost-live
Review of a Video
Fox, B. L. (2013). Safety Last! [Review of the DVD Safety Last!, produced by Hal Roach Studios, 1923]. Library Journal, 138(8), 55. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=87078890&site=ehost-live
Review of a Motion Picture
Dargis, M. ( 2005, September 30). Scruffy space cowboys fighting their failings [Review of the motion picture Serentity, produced by Universal Pictures, 2005]. New York Times, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
Review of a Video Game
Arendt, S. (2012, March 6). Mass Effect 3 Review [Review of the video game Mass Effect 3, produced by Bioware, 2012]. Retrieved from http://www.escapistmagazine.com/articles/view/editorials/reviews/9458-Mass-Effect-3-Review
Peer Commentary on an Article
Sokolova, I. V. (2004). The power of gender biases [Peer commentary on the paper “Why women are more susceptible to depression: An explanation for gender differences” by C. M. Mulé]. Retrieved from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/mule.html#sokolova
The general examples below are for materials from a symposium or meeting that has not been published. If it is from one of these but published in either a book or journal format, cite them according to those rules. Unlike other citations, meeting and symposia only need the year and month it occurred in.
Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., & Contributor, C. C. (Year, Month). Title of contribution. In D. D. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.
Paper or Poster Presentation:
Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.
Published Contribution to a Symposium, Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237–288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Proceedings Published Regularly, Periodical
Cynx, J., Williams, H., & Nottebohm, F. (1992). Hemispheric differences in avian song discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 1372-1375.
Proceedings Published Regularly Online
Freeman, C. W., Quandt, W. B., Anthony, J. D., Muasher, M. (2013, Spring). U.S. grand strategy in the Middle East: Is there one? Middle East Policy, 20(1), 1–29. doi:10.1111/mepo.12000
Unpublished Contribution to a Symposium
Lichstein, K. L., Johnson, R. S., Womack, T. D., Dean, J. E., & Childers, C. K. (1990, June). Relaxation therapy for polypharmacy use in elderly insomniacs and noninsomniacs. In T. L. Rosenthal (Chair), Reducing medication in geriatric populations. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the First International Congress of Behavioral Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden.
Conference Paper Abstract Retrieved Online
Marcellus, J. (2012, August). Independent woman: How a World War I recruiting effort gave rise to a feminist magazine. Paper presented at the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Media Conference, Chicago, IL. Abstract retrieved from http://www.aejmc.org/home/2012/04/history-2012-abstracts/
Unpublished Paper Presented at a Meeting
Lanktree, C., & Briere, J. (1991, January). Early data on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA.
Ruby, J., & Fulton, C. (1993, June). Beyond redlining: Editing software that works. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Society for Scholarly Publishing, Washington, DC.
Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses
How dissertations and theses are cited depends on whether they are published in a database or unpublished at an institute or university.
Available from a Database Service:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)
Author, A. A. (Year) Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location.
Doctorial Dissertation from a Commercial Database
Davis, K. B. (2011). The enactment of learning and knowledge creation: A study of hospital leadership group interaction. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 3434179).
Master’s Thesis from an Institutional database
Richards, R. R. (2011). Movement of Scaphirhynchus species in the Missouri river above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/2011/richards/RichardsR1211.pdf
Doctoral Dissertation Abstracted in DAI
Bower, D. L. (1993). Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristics of referring and nonreferring supervisors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (01), 534B. (UMI No. 9315947)
Doctoral Thesis from a University outside the United States
Andersson, K. M. Aqueous Processing of WC-Co Powders. (Doctoral thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden). Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3725
Unpublished Work and Publications of Limited Circulation
Unpublished work doesn’t require a lot of information, but it does require you to be specific. Is the unpublished work done, in progress, or submitted for publication? Those will be addressed in the citation.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript.
Unpublished manuscript can be replaced with “Manuscript submitted for publication” if it has been submitted but that accepted, or “Manuscript in preparation” is it is still in progress. If it has been accepted for publication then you would treat it as in-press.
Unpublished Manuscript with a University Cited
Dépret, E. F., & Fiske, S. T. (1993). Perceiving the powerful: Intriguing individuals versus threatening groups. Unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
Manuscript in Progress or Submitted for Publication
McIntosh, D. N. (1993). Religion as schema, with implications for the relation between religion and coping. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Unpublished Raw Data from Study, Untitled Work
Author, A. A. (Year). [Description/title of the data]. Unpublished raw data.
Bordi, F., & LeDoux, J. E. (1993). [Auditory response latencies in rat auditory cortex]. Unpublished raw data.
Informally Published or Self-Archived Work
Author, A. A. (Year) Title of manuscript. Retrieved from http://www.completeURL.com
Informally Published or Self-Archived Work, from ERIC
Cohen, A. (2003). Strategy Training for Second Language Learners. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED482492).
The Writing Lab is available to students to assist with all things writing. This unique service helps at any point during the writing process and can be useful to students in any course, plus you can submit questions online.
Quick Guide to the Most Commonly Used References
- In titles, such as books, articles, or sections of a web document, only the first word, the first word of a subtitle, and proper nouns are capitalized. All other words are lowercased.
- On the other hand, journals, newspapers, and magazines are capitalized like normal titles (only articles, prepositions, and conjunctions are lowercased).
- In all journal articles, not only is the journal name italicized but so is the volume number. The issue number is not, though. Example: Accounting & Business Research, 20(2)
- The location of publication should always be City, ST or City, Country for foreign publications.
- Do not put a period after a URL or DOI.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Above is the most basic format for a book. If multiple authors or editors are listed, separate with commas after the initials and place an ampersand (&) before the final author or editor. (Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.) If you have both author and editor, such as in an anthology, see Books.
Example: Lovecraft, H. P. (1973). Supernatural horror in literature. New York, NY: Dover Publications.
Internal Citations: When citing in the text it would be (Last Name, Year, p. ##) — (Lovecraft, 1973, p.23)
An Article in an Online Database
Articles in an online database can be cited one of two ways depending on if they have a digital object identifier (DOI) or not. DOIs are unique to each article and can usually be found with the rest of the reference information. Not all articles have a DOI. For more a more comprehensive list, see Periodicals.
With a DOI: Author, A. A. (Year) Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxx
Ferraiolo, K. (2013, May). Is state gamblinb policy 'morality policy'? Framing debates over state lotteries. Policy Studies Journal, 41(2), 217-242. doi:10.1111/psj.12015
Without a DOI: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), pp-pp. Retrieved from https://completeURL.com
Aubry, T., Sylvester, J., & Ecker, J. (2010, May). Community psychology training in Canada in the new millennium. Canadian Psychology, 51(2), 89-95. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/506639373?accountid=38003
Internal Citations: When citing in the text it would be the same as with a book (Last Name, Year, p. ##) — (Aubry, Sylvester, & Ecker, 2010, p. 92)
A General Website
Websites are much trickier than the other sources listed. When using a website, you must always judge the reliability of the source. Is it by a respectable group or organization or is it owned by a random person? Is the address one you can trust, like .edu or .gov, or an unknown free website like angelfire.com? Scholarly research isn't simply about finding some information from whatever websites out there, but finding reliable and verifiable information from trustworthy websites. Some key things to look for when judging a website's authority are:
- Does it have an author (or organization as author)?
- How credible is the author?
- Does it have a date of publication or update and is it recent?
- Is the site sponsored by a legitimate organization or agency?
- Is the sponsor organization generally considered to have bias?
- Ultimately, use common sense and ask yourself, 'Why should I trust this information?'
APA separates out many different kinds of web documents, such as reports, blog posts, message boards, etc. (For a complete list of the different types of web-based sources, see Internet Sources.)
Reference Page: You want to try and find as much information as possible when using a page off a general website (as opposed to using a document or report posted online). You want to try and get author, date posted or updated, title of the page, and URL. An organization can be the author. If you are missing the author, move the title in front of the year. If you do not have a date, put (n.d.).
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the page. Retrieved from https://completeURL.com
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013, May 3). Laws & regulations. Retrieved from https://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations
Internal Citations: If a normal author is listed, the format follows the same as books or articles, minus the page number (Last Name, Year).
If an organization with a long name is listed, an abbreviation or shortened form may be used (EPA, 2013).
If a title is in place of an author, a shortened version (one to three words) may be used, but make sure there is no confusion with another source. (Short Title, Year).