There is no one way to cite every form of multimedia.  Each one requires specific information to its medium.  This does not include media found online. For those please see Internet Sources.

  • An Episode of a Television or Radio Program
    If it is important to your research to list performers, narrators, or directors, that can be added behind either the title of the episode or the series depending on which it pertains to.

“Episode Title.” Series Title. Network. Call letters, City of local broadcast, date of broadcast. Medium.“100 Clues.” Psych. USA Network. 27 Mar. 2013. Television.

  • Transcript of a Radio/Video Broadcast

Fresh Air. Narr. Terry Gross. Natl. Public Radio. WHYY, n.p., 20 May 2008. Print. Transcript.

  • A Sound Recording (CD)

Haskell, Dale. Small Items. Sunrise Recording, 2002. CD.

  • A Song on a CD

Fun. “Some Nights.” Some Nights. Fueled by Ramen, 2012. CD.Fun. “Some Nights.” Some Nights. Fueled by Ramen, 2012. MP3.

  • Supplemental Material Offered with a Recording
    This material can be the libretto, the booklet, the miner notes, or any other materials offered with the recording.

Author. “Title of Material.” Type of Material. Title of Recording. Manufacturer, Date. Medium.

  • A Film or Video Recording
    DVDs, video cassettes, laser discs, slide programs, and filmstrips are all treated the same as this, only the medium would change.
    • Though you are only required to have the director, if it is relevant to your research, include writers, performers, or any others necessary after the director.

Title of Film. Dir. First Last. Dirstributor, Year. Medium.Ironman 3. Dir. Shane Black. Perf. Robert Downey Jr, Guy Pearce, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Don Cheadle. Warner Bros., 2013. Film. 

  • A Performance

Much Ado About Nothing. By William Shakespeare. Dir. Josie Rourke. Perf. David Tennant, and Catherine Tate. Wyndham Theatre, London. 1 June 2011. Performance.

  • A Musical Score or Libretto
    A libretto is cited the same way, except the librettist is listed first.  The composer follows the title with a “Composed by” in front of his name.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 8 in F, Op. 93. 1812. New York: Kalmus, n. d. Print. Kalmus Miniature Orchestra Scores.

  • A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph (Visual Art)
    If the collector doesn’t want to be named, you can simply use “Private Collector.”

Artist. Title of Work. Year of work. Medium. Institute housing work/Name of collection, City.

da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. c. 1503-06. Oil on panel. Louvre Museum, Paris.  

  • A Map or Chart
    Maps and Charts are treated like books or articles.

Washington. Map. Chicago: Rand, 1995. Print.

  • A Cartoon or Comic Strip
    If there is a title to the cartoon, include it inside quotation marks after the artist’s name.

Chast, Roz. Cartoon. New Yorker 7 Apr. 1997: 72. Print.

  • An Advertisement

Product Name by Company Name. Advertisement. Publication information. Medium.Hyundai Santa Fe by Hyundai. Advertisement. CBS. 3 Feb. 2013. Television.Head and Shoulders. Advertisement. Newsweek 17 Mar. 2008: 2. Print.

  • Publication on CD-ROM or DVD-ROM
    Like books, if the editor, compiler, or edition is listed and relevant include that after the title.

Author Last, First. Title of Publication. City: Publisher, Date. Medium

  • Article in a Microfiche Collection

Chapman, Don. "Panel Could Help to Protect Children." Winston-Salem Journal 14 Jan. 1990: 14. Microform. NewsBank: Welfare and Social Problems 12 (1990): fiche 1, grids A8-11. Print.

  • Document in a Microfilm Collection

Whately, William. "A bride-blush, or a wedding sermon." 1617.  Microfilm. Early English Books 1475-1640.Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms Inc., P&R 25296.


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