Chicago Style

All examples are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.

Chicago Style Guidelines  

This section provides some general hints to using Chicago citations and the basic format of some simple, commonly used materials such as a book, an article found through an online database like ProQuest or Academic Search Complete, and a general website. For a more detailed reference guide, please see the other sections:

If you still have difficulty, you may come by the Writing Lab and talk to a tutor directly, email us through Ask a Question, or reference the Chicago Manual of Style available in Kent Library.

If you are having trouble with formatting your paper according to Chicago guidelines, the Writing Lab has several tutorials you can use as a template:

How is Chicago Style Different from MLA or APA?

Chicago is not used as much as MLA or APA in academic writing. It is used more in the publishing industry, so if you’re planning that Small Press minor, be prepared. Here at Southeast, it is also often seen in historic preservation studies and some specialized history fields. But no matter the class, if your professor asks for Chicago style, here are some things to understand.

  • It’s not as scary as you think!
  • Chicago does not use parenthetical internal citations, i.e., (Scott 124) or (Scott, 2013, p. 124) if the Notes/Bibliography method is used (Chicago also has an Author/Date method that does use parenthetical internal citations, more on that below). Instead it uses footnotes or endnotes. Word can do this pretty easily.
  • You do not have to have both footnotes and endnotes unless your teacher requests it.  One or the other is okay.
  • You do still need a bibliography with your foot/endnotes.
  • Sources are formatted differently in foot/endnotes than in the bibliography.
  • Pictures only need to be cited in the caption.

If this is your first time working with Chicago, please look over the tutorials above.  They will explain everything you need to know about formatting the paper.

Notes/Bibliography Style

Book
Bibliography:

Author Last, First. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year.

Editor Last, First, ed. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year.

Above is the most basic format for a book.  List the author’s name as written on the title page.  If multiple authors or editors are listed, separate with commas and place an “and” before the final author or editor (Last, First, and First Last).  Only the first name is reversed, the rest are written normally.  If you have both author and editor, such as in an anthology, see Books.

Lovecraft, H. P. Supernatural Horror in Literature. New York: Dover, 1973.

Foot/Endnote Citations:

Names are reversed in internal citations.  When citing in the note the first time it would be:

     1. Author First Last, Title (City: Publisher, Year), page ##

     2. H. P. Lovecraft, Supernatural Horror in Literature (New York: Dover, 1973), 35.

Subsequent uses:

     3. Lovecraft, Supernatural Horror, 35.

An Article in an Online Database
Bibliography:

Articles in an online database are cited the same as print periodicals with the addition of the DOI or stable URL followed by a period.  DOIs are unique to each article and can usually be found with the rest of the reference information. Not all articles have a DOI.  If a stable URL is not listed by the database, give the database name and an identification number in parentheses. For a more comprehensive list, see Periodicals.

With a DOI:

Author Last, First. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical xx, no. x (Year): pp–pp. doi:xx.xxxx/xxxxx.

Ferraiolo, Kathleen. “Is State Gambling Policy ‘Morality Policy’? Framing Debates over State Lotteries.” Policy Studies Journal 41, no. 2 (May 2013): 217–242. doi: 10.1111/psj.12015.

With a URL:

Author Last, First. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical xx, no. x (Year): pp–pp. URL.

Chase, Kenneth R. “Constructing Ethics through Rhetoric: Isocrates and Piety.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 95, no. 3 (2009): 239–262. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=44032656&site=ehost-live.

With a Database Name and ID Number:

Author Last, First. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical xx, no. x (Year): pp–pp. Database (ID Number).

Chase, Kenneth R. “Constructing Ethics through Rhetoric: Isocrates and Piety.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 95, no. 3 (2009): 239–262.  Academic Search Complete (Accession Number 44032656).

Foot/Endnote Citations:

Names are reversed in internal citations.  When citing the first time in the text it would be:

     1. Kathleen Ferraiolo, “Is State Gambling Policy ‘Morality Policy’? Framing Debates over State Lotteries,” Policy Studies Journal 41, no. 2 (May 2013): 232, doi: 10.1111/psj.12015.

     2. Kenneth R. Chase, “Constructing Ethics through Rhetoric: Isocrates and Piety,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 95, no. 3 (2009): 248, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=44032656&site=ehost-live.

     3. Kenneth R. Chase, “Constructing Ethics through Rhetoric: Isocrates and Piety,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 95, no. 3 (2009): 248, Academic Search Complete (Accession Number 44032656).

Subsequent uses:

     4. Ferraiolo, “State Gambling Policy,” 233.

     5. Chase, “Constructing Ethics,” 247.

A General Website

Websites are much trickier than the other sources listed.  When using a website, you must always judge the reliability of the source.  Is it by a respectable group or organization or is it owned by a random person?  Is the address one you can trust, like .edu or .gov, or an unknown free website like angelfire.com?  Scholarly research isn’t simply about finding some information from whatever websites out there, but finding reliable and verifiable information from trustworthy websites.  Some key things to look for when judging a website’s authority are

  1. does it have an author (or organization as author),
  2. how credible is the author,
  3. does it have a date of publication or update and is it recent,
  4. is the site sponsored by a legitimate organization or agency, and
  5. is the sponsor organization generally considered to have bias. 

Ultimately, use common sense and ask yourself, “Why should I trust this information?”

For a complete list of the different types of web-based sources, see Internet Sources.

Bibliography:

You want to try and find as much information as possible when using a page of a website. You want to try and get author (if any), title or description of the page, owner or sponsor of the website, URL, and the date posted/updated. If there is no date or update listed, provide the access date. An organization can be an author. Find as much as possible, but you can only work with what is there. If you are missing any information, move on to the next piece.

The way this is listed depends a lot on what information you have.  In the Date section, if you have a modified date, you would list it as last modified July 12, 2011; whereas, if you have no date or post or modified date, you would list it as accessed August 3, 2013.

Author Last, First. “Title of the page.” Title of Website/Sponsor. Date posted/updated. URL.

Environmental Protection Agency. “Laws & Regulations.” EPA.gov. Last modified May 3, 2013.  https://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations.

Foot/Endnote Citations:

Names are reversed in internal citations.  Unless the author is a person, you do not need to put it at the beginning. When citing the first time in the text it would be:

     1. “Laws & Regulations,” epa.gov, last modified May 3, 2013, https://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations.

Subsequent uses:

     2. Author, “Title of page.”

     3. “Laws & Regulations.”

What is the Author/Date Style, and How Does it Differ from the Notes/Bibliography Style?

While most subjects in the humanities and some in the social sciences use Chicago’s notes/bibliography style, The Chicago Manual of Style recommends that the physical, natural, and social sciences use the alternative author/date style. This style uses in-text citations rather than foot- or endnotes and a reference list rather than a bibliography, similar to APA style.

The in-text citations are placed at the end of the clause where the quote or borrowed information is given but before any punctuation ending that clause, including a period ending the sentence. Within the parentheses, the author(s) last/family name(s) is/are given, followed by a single space with no intervening punctuation and the year of publication. Two authors’ names are separated by an “and;” three names are separated by commas along with an “and”; and if the source contains four or more authors, then the first author’s name is given followed by “et al.”

If the source contains page numbers, then the page number(s) from where the cited information originated is/are given after the publication year, separated from it by a comma. A page range is indicated by a dash in between the numbers, and separate pages are indicated by a comma in between the numbers.

A General Website

(Smith 2016, 147).

(Jones and Robertson 2007, 265-67).

(Dewey, Cheatham, and Howe 2018, 42, 46).

(Brown et al. 2010, 7-9, 11).

If there are no individual authors are listed, then list a corporate author if applicable. If there is no corporate author, then list the work’s title in quotation marks. The title can be shortened if necessary, though the first word in the shortened title must match the first word of the full title.

(American Red Cross 2014).

(“Race for Governor Heats Up” 2016).

Another option for citation in author/date style is listing the author(s) in text, followed immediately by the year of publication in parentheses (even if the author is listed in the possessive form). Any page numbers would still be listed in parentheses at the end of the clause.

According to Jones and Robertson (2007), “The economy will almost certainly remain strong for years to come” (265-67).

Jones and Robertson (2007) predicted, “The economy will almost certainly remain strong for years to come” (265-67), but the 2008 financial crash ended their notoriety as trustworthy economists.

Jones and Robertson’s (2007) work on American economic trends was their last to be widely received.

If no date is given for publication, then put n.d. in place of the year of publication in both the in-text citation and the reference page. If the exact year of publication is uncertain, but an approximate year can be reasonably guessed, then a year may be inserted with a question mark and surrounded by brackets.

(Wickham [1652?]).

The reference page in author/date style is nearly identical to the notes/bibliography style, except that the page is titled as “References” or “Works Cited” rather than “Bibliography” and that the year of publication is placed between the author’s name and the title of the work, followed by a period. Unlike APA, the year is not placed in parentheses.

Dewey, Paul, Laura Cheatham, and Walter Howe. 2018. How to Succeed at Multi-Level
    Marketing. Las Vegas: Populist Books.

More detailed information on the author/date style can be found in The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition or A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 9th Edition by Kate L. Turabian.

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