Multimedia and Reviews

This section includes audiovisual media, electronic media, and reviews, but not internet sources such as YouTube videos, webcasts, video blogs.  For those please see Internet Sources.

Audiovisual Media

This includes such media as CDs, motion pictures, and television show.  While motion pictures and television series follow a similar format to a book citation, music and audio recording require much more information.

Motion Picture:

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture. [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Music Recording:

Writer, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B.B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Meduim of recording: MP3, CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different form song copyright date)

  • Video, Not a Motion Picture
    If the DVD is not commercially available at most stores, provide the link at the end to lead the reader to where they can find it.

American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2008). Working with immigrants [DVD]. Available from

  • Motion Picture

Feige, K. (Producer), & Black, S. (Director). (2013). Ironman 3 [Motion picture]. USA: Marvel Studios.

  • Television Series

Lorre, C., & Prady, B. (Executive producers). (2007). The big bang theory [Television series]. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Studios.

  • Single Episode from a Television Series

Lorre, C., Holland, S., Hernandez, T. (Writers), & Cendrowski, M. (Director). (2012). The shiny trinket maneuver [Television series episode]. In Lorre, C., & Prady, B. (Executive producers), The big bang theory. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Studios.

  • Podcast

Library of Congress. (Producer). (2013, May). Michael Feinstein on sound preservation [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

  • Music Recording
    Internal citations should include side/track number.  (Fun, 2012, track 2)

Fun. (2012). Some Nights. On Some Nights [MP3 Album]. New York, NY: Fueled by Ramen.

  • Map Retrieved Online

U.S. Geological Survey (Cartographer). (1950). Salem quadrangle, Arkansas-Missouri 15 minute series [Topographical map]. Retrieved from

  • Video Game
    It is important to recognize that APA does not have a singular listing in their style manual on how to cite a video game.  This citation is based off the method of citing software as listed below.

EA International. (2011) Dragon age II [Playstation 3]. Alberta, Canada: Bioware.

Electronic Media

This includes any type of software, data set, or measurement instrument that helps in data analysis.  Mass commercial software (like Microsoft Word or Excel) doesn’t need to be cited, but specialized or limited software should be.  They are considered unauthored unless a specific person/group other than the producer is listed as holding the rights.

Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of program (Version number-if any) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.

If retrieved online:

Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of program (Version number-if any) [Description of form]. Retrieved from

  • Computer Software

Miller, M. E. (1993). The Interactive Tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Westminster, CA: Psytek Services.

  • Data Set

National Health Interview Survey--Current health topics: 1991--Longitudinal study of aging (Version 4) [Data file]. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

  • Apparatus

Name of Apparatus [Apparatus and software]. (Year). Location: Name of producer.


For the most part reviews are straightforward.  You want to give as much information as possible about the review, the material being reviewed, and where you found it.  If it is in a periodical or online periodical, you treat it the same as a normal periodical, giving the journal, volume, issue, and pages, or the URL it can be found at.  If there is no title, the bracketed material can take its place.  If no author, the title (or bracketed material if no title also) is moved in front of the year.

Author of Review, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the book/motion picture/video game Title of material by A. A. Author] Title of journal/newspaper, xx, xx–xx.

If it is a motion picture, DVD, or video game which doesn’t have an single author to credit, use “produced by” instead of “by” and the company name.

  • Review of a Book

Wertheim, S. (2013). Hunter-Blatherer [Review of the book The world until yesterday: What can we learn from traditional societies? By J. Diamond]. Nation, 296(16), 35-37. Retrieved from

  • Review of a Video

Fox, B. L. (2013). Safety Last! [Review of the DVD Safety Last!, produced by Hal Roach Studios, 1923]. Library Journal, 138(8), 55. Retrieved from

  • Review of a Motion Picture

Dargis, M. ( 2005, September 30). Scruffy space cowboys fighting their failings [Review of the motion picture Serentity, produced by Universal Pictures, 2005]. New York Times, Retrieved from

  • Review of a Video Game

Arendt, S. (2012, March 6). Mass Effect 3 Review [Review of the video game Mass Effect 3, produced by Bioware, 2012]. Retrieved from

  • Peer Commentary on an Article

Sokolova, I. V. (2004). The power of gender biases [Peer commentary on the paper “Why women are more susceptible to depression: An explanation for gender differences” by C. M. Mulé]. Retrieved from


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