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Academic Sources

Academic Sources

Meetings and Symposia

The general examples below are for materials from a symposium or meeting that has not been published.  If it is from one of these but published in either a book or journal format, cite them according to those rules.  Unlike other citations, meeting and symposia only need the year and month it occurred in.


Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., & Contributor, C. C. (Year, Month). Title of contribution. In D. D. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Paper or Poster Presentation:

Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

  • Published Contribution to a Symposium, Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality.  In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237–288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

  • Proceedings Published Regularly, Periodical

Cynx, J., Williams, H., & Nottebohm, F. (1992). Hemispheric differences in avian song discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 1372-1375.

  • Proceedings Published Regularly Online

Freeman, C. W., Quandt, W. B., Anthony, J. D., Muasher, M. (2013, Spring). U.S. grand strategy in the Middle East: Is there one? Middle East Policy, 20(1), 1–29. doi:10.1111/mepo.12000

  • Unpublished Contribution to a Symposium

Lichstein, K. L., Johnson, R. S., Womack, T. D., Dean, J. E., & Childers, C. K. (1990, June). Relaxation therapy for polypharmacy use in elderly insomniacs and noninsomniacs. In T. L. Rosenthal (Chair), Reducing medication in geriatric populations. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the First International Congress of Behavioral Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden.

  • Conference Paper Abstract Retrieved Online

Marcellus, J. (2012, August). Independent woman: How a World War I recruiting effort gave rise to a feminist magazine. Paper presented at the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Media Conference, Chicago, IL. Abstract retrieved from

  • Unpublished Paper Presented at a Meeting

Lanktree, C., & Briere, J. (1991, January). Early data on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA.

  • Poster Session

Ruby, J., & Fulton, C. (1993, June). Beyond redlining: Editing software that works. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Society for Scholarly Publishing, Washington, DC.

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

How dissertations and theses are cited depends on whether they are published in a database or unpublished at an institute or university. 

Available from a Database Service:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)


Author, A. A. (Year) Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

  • Doctorial Dissertation from a Commercial Database

Davis, K. B. (2011). The enactment of learning and knowledge creation: A study of hospital leadership group interaction. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 3434179).

  • Master’s Thesis from an Institutional database

Richards, R. R. (2011). Movement of Scaphirhynchus species in the Missouri river above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations

  • Doctoral Dissertation Abstracted in DAI

Bower, D. L. (1993). Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristics of referring and nonreferring supervisors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (01), 534B. (UMI No. 9315947)

  • Doctoral Thesis from a University outside the United States

Andersson, K. M. Aqueous Processing of WC-Co Powders. (Doctoral thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden). Retrieved from

Unpublished Work and Publications of Limited Circulation

Unpublished work doesn’t require a lot of information, but it does require you to be specific.  Is the unpublished work done, in progress, or submitted for publication?  Those will be addressed in the citation.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript.

Unpublished manuscript can be replaced with “Manuscript submitted for publication” if it has been submitted but that accepted, or “Manuscript in preparation” is it is still in progress.  If it has been accepted for publication then you would treat it as in-press.

  • Unpublished Manuscript with a University Cited

Dépret, E. F., & Fiske, S. T. (1993). Perceiving the powerful: Intriguing individuals versus threatening groups. Unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts at Amherst

  • Manuscript in Progress or Submitted for Publication

McIntosh, D. N. (1993). Religion as schema, with implications for the relation between religion and coping. Manuscript submitted for publication.

  • Unpublished Raw Data from Study, Untitled Work

Author, A. A. (Year). [Description/title of the data]. Unpublished raw data.

Bordi, F., & LeDoux, J. E. (1993). [Auditory response latencies in rat auditory cortex]. Unpublished raw data.

  • Informally Published or Self-Archived Work

Author, A. A. (Year) Title of manuscript. Retrieved from

  • Informally Published or Self-Archived Work, from ERIC

Cohen, A. (2003). Strategy Training for Second Language Learners. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED482492).


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