Interviews, Academic, and Legal Sources

Interviews and Personal Communication

Interviews and personal communication always begins with the person being interviewed, followed by the person conducting the interview. If identifying information about the person is needed, it can be added in parentheses after the name.

They are usually only listed in foot/endnotes unless it is published somewhere.

Listed below are both the foot/endnote and the bibliography entry, in that order. Foot/endnotes receive a first line (one tab or .5" indent, which should be automatic in Word), and the bibliography receives a hanging indent. Be sure you are looking at the correct one.

  • Published or Broadcast Interview
    If published online provide URL, and if multimedia (podcast, etc.) give that information after the program title.

Harry Blackmun, interview by Ted Koppel and Nina Totenberg, Nightline, ABC, April 5, 1994.

Blackmun, Harry. Interview by Ted Koppel and Nina Totenberg. Nightline. ABC. April 5, 1994.

  • Personal Interview

Joshua de Vries, interview by the author, May 15, 2013.

  • Personal Communication (E-mail, Letters, Text Messages)

Elizabeth Bennet, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2010.

Academic Sources

This section includes dissertations, theses, and archival materials.

  • A Dissertation or Master’s Thesis
    A master’s thesis is cited the same way, with master’s thesis replacing PhD diss. Also, if found online, provide URL or database name and ID number at the end.

Anthony T. Boyle, "The Epistemological Evolution of Renaissance Utopian Literature, 1518-1657" (PhD diss., New York University, 1983).

Boyle, Anthony T. "The Epistemological Evolution of Renaissance Utopian Literature, 1518-1657." PhD diss., New York University, 1983.

  • A Lecture, Speech, Address, or Reading
    Change paper depending on the type of work. (Lecture, speaker, poster etc.)

Speaker, “Title if any” (paper, Sponsoring organization/Conference, City, Date).

Speaker. “Title if any.” Paper presented at Sponsoring organization/Conference, City, Date.

Manuscripts and Archival Materials

Manuscripts are treated differently than other materials. Normally the specific piece is cited only in the foot/endnote. What is cited in the bibliography is the archive and collection it was retrieved from, unless only one item from an archive is cited. In that case cite the specific piece in the bibliography as well.

There is no uniform way to format manuscripts, so include as much information on the location and identification as possible and use that form consistently. Below is an example of the type of information you should be looking for. If the depository is a well-known institution, the city can be omitted. Dates can be Month Day, Year or, to avoid confusion, Day Month Year.


Author First Last, Title punctuated as necessary, Date of Manuscript, Collection Name (if any), Collection ID Information (this can be Box #, File #, etc), Name of Depository, City, ST (if obscure city).


Collection Name. Depository. City, ST (if obscure).

  • A Manuscript or Typescript

Goeffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, 1400-1410, MS Harley, 7334, British Library.

MS Harley. British Library.

  • An Unpublished Letter
    The word letter may be omitted, but descriptions like memorandum or telegram should be included.

Thomas Hart Benton to Charles Fremont, 22 June 1847, John Charles Fremont Papers, Southwest Museum Library, Los Angeles.

John Charles Fremont Papers. Southwest Museum Library. Los Angeles.

  • A Letter in a Published Collection

Virginia Woolf to T. S. Eliot, 28 July 1920, in The Letters of Virginia Woolf, vol. 2, ed. Nigel Nicolson and Joanne Trautmann (New York: Harcourt, 1976) 437.

Woolf, Virginia. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Vol 2. Edited by Nigel Nicolson and Joanne Trautmann. New York: Harcourt, 1976. 437-38.

Government and Legal Documents

This includes records of congress or reports issued by a department or committee, court cases, and acts of Congress. Legal material can be very complicated to cite if you aren’t familiar with it. The Chicago Manual of Style suggests if you need a lot of legal documents cited that you should reference The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation or the ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation.

Like manuscripts, legal materials are generally cited in foot/endnotes only.

  • Congressional Record Post-1873
    H stands for House, S stands for Senate. If the speaker is important, include in the parentheses.

# Cong. Rec. Page number. (Date).

159 Cong. Rec. 3015-24 (May 15, 2013).

  • Congressional Record Pre-1873
    For year 1789-1824 congressional records were printed in Annals of Congress of the United States Debates, 1824-37 Register of Debates, and 1833-73 Congressional Globe. Abbreviations of these are used instead of Cong. Rec.

Cong. Globe, 39th Cong. 2d Sess. 39 (1866).

42 Annals of Cong. 1697 (1824).

3 Reg. Deb. 388 (1827).

  • Constitutions
    § refers to section, ¶ refers to paragraph, art. refers to article, amend. refers to amendment.

U.S. Const. art. I, § 4, cl. 2.

  • Law or Statues

Name of Act, Public Law No#, Statues at Large vol #. (Date enacted).

Pesticide Monitoring Improvements Act of 1988, Pub. L. 102.1412, Stat. 100-418 (August 23, 1988).

  • Bills or Resolution

Name of Act, Bill #, Congressional session, Section # (Year of Publication).

Homeland Security Act of 2002, H. R. 5005, 107th Cong. (2002).

  • Court Case

First plaintiff v. First defendant, Volume Name First page, Page of actual citation, (Name of court that decided the case Date).

Stevens v. National Broadcasting Co., 148 USPQ 755, 755. (CA Super. Ct. 1966).


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